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Researchers have discovered several security vulnerabilities in implementations of Wi-Fi Protected Access two (WPA2)’s 4-way handshake, which is used by nearly all protected Wi-Fi networks.

The discovery was the result of simulating cryptographic primitives during symbolic execution for the analysis of security protocol implementations, KU Leuven researchers Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens explain in a recently published whitepaper (PDF).

By applying the technique on three client-side implementations of WPA2’s 4-way handshake, the researchers discovered timing side-channels when verifying authentication tags, a denial-of-service attack, a stack-based buffer overflow, and a non-trivial decryption oracle.

Through symbolic execution, the researchers claim, one aims to exhaustively explore all code paths of a program by running on symbolic inputs instead of concrete ones. For their experiments, the researchers implemented the techniques on top of the KLEE symbolic execution engine (they modified the engine to handle cryptographic primitives).

Of the three tested implementations, two were found susceptible to trivial timing side-channels, because they verify authentication tags using timing-unsafe memory compares.

The researchers found a denial of service in Intel’s iwd daemon (iNet wireless daemon) and a stack-based buffer overflow (in code that processes decrypted data) in MediaTek’s implementation, both of which can be triggered by malicious Access Point (AP). The AES unwrap algorithm was found to be incorrectly implemented in MediaTek’s code.

Furthermore, the wpa supplicant (a cross-platform supplicant with support for WEP, WPA and WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i)) was found vulnerable to a non-trivial decryption oracle caused by processing decrypted but unauthenticated data. Tracked as CVE-2018-14526, the bug can be exploited to recover sensitive information.

“This decryption oracle can be exploited when the victim connects to a WPA2 network using the old TKIP encryption algorithm. It can be abused to decrypt the group key transported in message 3 of the 4-way handshake,” the researchers note.

The attack, however, is only possible if WPA2 is used and if the client selects TKIP as the pairwise cipher, so that the RC4 stream cipher is used to encrypt the key data field (if CCMP is selected, AES is used to protect the key data field). Both conditions are met when the Wi-Fi network uses WPA2 and only supports TKIP (in 2016, 20% of protected Wi-Fi networks used this configuration).

The flaw allows an attacker to decrypt the group key transported in message 3 of WPA2’s 4-way handshake and use it to inject both broadcast and unicast traffic. Furthermore, the key could be used to decrypt unicast and broadcast traffic, the research paper claims.

“We successfully applied symbolic execution to client-side implementations of the 4-way handshake of WPA2, by simulating cryptographic primitives, and constraining parts of the symbolic input to prevent excessive state explosions. This revealed memory corruptions in code that processes decrypted data, uncovered insecure implementations of cryptographic primitives, and even revealed a decryption oracle,” the researchers note.

Earlier this week developers of the popular password cracking tool Hashcat identified a new method that can in some cases be used to obtain a network’s Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) or Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) password.

 

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is gathered from Security Week while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.
Through this website, you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of CSIRT-CY. We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them.
Every effort is made to keep the website up and running smoothly. However, CSIRT-CY takes no responsibility for, and will not be liable for, the website being temporarily unavailable due to technical issues beyond our control.

In a disturbing revelation, Check Point researchers have discovered a vulnerability in WhatsApp that allows a threat actor to intercept and manipulate messages sent by those in a group or private conversation. By doing so, attackers can put themselves in a position of immense power to not only steer potential evidence in their favor, but also create and spread misinformation.

 

The vulnerability so far allows for three possible attacks:

  1. Changing a reply from someone to put words into their mouth that they did not say.

  2. Quoting a message in a reply to a group conversation to make it appear as if it came from a person who is not even part of the group.

  3. Sending a message to a member of a group that pretends to be a group message but is in fact only sent to this member. However, the member’s response will be sent to the entire group.

From the visual below we can see how these attacks could play out for real:

 

Oded Vanunu, Check Point’s Head of Product Vulnerability Research had this to say on the recent findings: “Given WhatsApp’s prevalence among consumers, businesses, and government agencies, it’s no surprise that hackers see the application as a five-star opportunity for potential scams. As one of the main communication channels available today, WhatsApp is used for sensitive conversations ranging from confidential corporate and government information, to criminal intelligence that could be used in a court of law.”

Following the process of Responsible Disclosure, Oded’s team informed WhatsApp of their findings. From Check Point Research’s view, we believe these vulnerabilities to be of utmost importance and require attention.

Watch the demo video and read about the technical details in our research report here.

 

WhatsApp with the Fake News?

Due to its very nature of being an easy and quick way to communicate, WhatsApp has already been at the center of a variety of scams. From fake supermarket and airline giveaways to election tampering, threat actors never tire of ways to manipulate unsuspecting users.

In fact, the ability to social engineer on a mass scale was already seen at a level where even people’s lives were at stake. In Brazil, rumours quickly spread on WhatsApp about the dangers of receiving a yellow fever vaccine – the very thing that could have stopped an epidemic of the deadly virus during its 2016 rampage that infected 1500 people and killed almost 500.

More recently, earlier this week vicious rumours, also spread via WhatsApp, led to a spate of lynching and murders of innocent victims in India.

WhatsApp is also taking an increasingly central role in elections, especially in developing countries. Earlier this year, again in India, WhatsApp was used to send messages, some of which were completely false.

Ultimately, social engineering is all about tricking the user and manipulating them to carry out actions they will later regret. With an ability to manipulate replies, invent quotes or send private messages pretending to be group ones, as seen in this research, scammers would have a far greater chance of success and have yet another weapon in their arsenal.

What’s more, the larger the WhatsApp group, where a flurry of messages are often sent, the less likely a member would have the time or inclination to double check every message to verify its authenticity, and could easily be taken in by the information they see. As already seen by spam emails that fake the sender’s name to appear to be from a source the receiver trusts, this latest vulnerability would allow for similar methods to be used though from a totally different attack vector.

How to Protect Yourself from Misinformation

While there are no security products that can yet protect users from these types of deceptions, there are several ideas to keep in mind to avoid being a victim of fake news, conspiracy theories and online scams in general.

If something sounds too good to be true, it usually is. And likewise, if something sounds too ridiculous to be true, it probably is.

Misinformation spreads faster than the truth. Although you may be seeing the same news from multiple sources, this does not make it more factual than were it to come from a single source.

Check your ‘facts’. It is recommended to cross check what you see on social media with a quick online search to see what others may be saying about the same story. Or even better, do not get more of your news from social media websites at all.

 

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is gathered from Checkpoint while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.
Through this website, you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of CSIRT-CY. We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them.
Every effort is made to keep the website up and running smoothly. However, CSIRT-CY takes no responsibility for, and will not be liable for, the website being temporarily unavailable due to technical issues beyond our control.

Security researchers at Checkpoint security have spotted a massive proxy botnet, tracked as ‘Black’ botnet, that could be the sign of a wider ongoing operation involving the Ramnit operators.

Ramnit is one of the most popular banking malware families in existence today, it was first spotted in 2010 as a worm, in 2011, its authors improved it starting from the leaked Zeus source code turning the malware into a banking Trojan. In 2014 it reached the pinnacle of success, becoming the fourth largest botnet in the world.

In 2015, Europol partnering with several private technology firms announced the takedown of the Ramnit C2 infrastructure.

A few months later Ramnit was back, the researchers at IBM security discovered a new variant of the popular Ramnit Trojan.

Recently the experts observed that the “Black” botnet campaign has infected up 100,000 systems in two months, and this is just the tip of the iceberg because according to researchers a second-stage malware called Ngioweb is already spreading.

There is the concrete risk that Ramnit operators are using the two malware to build a large, multi-purpose proxy botnet that could be used for many fraudulent activities (i.e. DDoS attacks, ransomware-based campaigns, cryptocurrency mining campaigns).

“Recently we discovered the Ramnit C&C server (185.44.75.109) which is not related to the previously most prevalent botnet “demetra”. According to domain names which are resolved to the IP address of this C&C server, it pretends to control even old bots, first seen back in 2015. We named this botnet “Black” due to the RC4 key value, “black”, that is used for traffic encryption in this botnet.” reads the analysis published by Checkpoint security.

“This C&C server has actually been active since 6th March 2018 but didn’t attract attention because of the low capacity of the “black” botnet at that time. However, in May-July 2018 we detected a new Ramnit campaign with around 100,000 computers infected.”

According to the experts, in the Black operation, the Ramnit malware is distributed via spam campaigns. The malicious code works as a first-stage malware and it is used to deliver a second-stage malware dubbed Ngioweb.

“Ngioweb represents a multifunctional proxy server which uses its own binary protocol with two layers of encryption,” continues the analysis published by Checkpoint.

“The proxy malware supports back-connect mode, relay mode, IPv4, IPv6 protocols, TCP and UDP transports, with first samples seen in the second half of 2017.”

Ngioweb leverages a two-stage C&C infrastructure, the STAGE-0 C&C server informs the malware about the STAGE-1 C&C server while the unencrypted HTTP connection is used for this purpose. The second STAGE-1 C&C server is used for controlling malware via an encrypted connection.

 

 

The Ngioweb malware can operate in two main modes, the Regular back-connect proxy, and the Relay proxy mode.

In a relay proxy mode, the malware allows operators to build chains of proxies and hide their services behind the IP address of a bot.

 

The following sequence of actions is used for building a hidden service using the Ngioweb botnet:

  1. Ngioweb Bot-A connects to C&C STAGE-0 and receives command to connect to the server C&C STAGE-1 with address X:6666.
  2. Ngioweb Bot-A connects to C&C STAGE-1 (Server-X) at X:6666. Server-X asks the bot to start the TCP server. Ngioweb bot reports on starting TCP server with IP address and port.
  3. Malware actor publishes the address of the Bot-A in DNS (or using any other public channel).
  4. Another malware Bot-B resolves the address of Bot-A using DNS (or using any other public channel).
  5. Bot-B connects to Bot-A.
  6. Bot-A creates new connection to Server-X and works as relay between Server-X and Bot-B.

 

Further details, including the IoC, are reported in the analysis published by Checkpoint.

 

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is gathered from Checkpoint while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.
Through this website, you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of CSIRT-CY. We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them.
Every effort is made to keep the website up and running smoothly. However, CSIRT-CY takes no responsibility for, and will not be liable for, the website being temporarily unavailable due to technical issues beyond our control.

Reddit social media network today announced that it suffered a security breach in June that exposed some of its users’ data, including their current email addresses and an old 2007 database backup containing usernames and hashed passwords.

According to Reddit, the unknown hacker(s) managed to gain read-only access to some of its systems that contained its users’ backup data, source code, internal logs, and other files.

In a post published to the platform Wednesday, Reddit Chief Technology Officer Christopher Slowe admitted that the hack was a serious one, but assured its users that the hackers did not gain access to Reddit systems.

“[The attackers] were not able to alter Reddit information, and we have taken steps since the event to further lock down and rotate all production secrets and API keys, and to enhance our logging and monitoring systems,” Slowe wrote.

According to Slowe, the most significant data contained in the backup was account credentials (usernames and their corresponding salted and hashed passwords), email addresses and all content including private messages.

Attacker Bypassed SMS-based Two-Factor Authentication

Reddit learned about the data breach on June 19 and said that the attacker compromised a few of the Reddit employees’ accounts with its cloud and source code hosting providers between June 14 and June 18.

The hack was accomplished by intercepting SMS messages that were meant to reach Reddit employees with one-time passcodes, eventually circumventing the two-factor authentication (2FA) Reddit had in place attacks.

The security breach should be a wake-up call to those who still rely on SMS-based authentication and believes it is secure. It’s time for you to move on from this method and switch to other non-SMS-based two-factor authentication.

Reddit is also encouraging users to move to token-based two-factor authentication, which involves your mobile phone generating a unique one-time passcode over an app.

Reddit said that users can follow a few steps mentioned on the breach announcement page to check if their accounts were involved.

Moreover, Reddit will reset passwords for users who may have had their login credentials stolen in the breach, and also directly notify all affected users with tips on how they can protect themselves.

 

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is gathered from The Hacker News while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.
Through this website, you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of CSIRT-CY. We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them.
Every effort is made to keep the website up and running smoothly. However, CSIRT-CY takes no responsibility for, and will not be liable for, the website being temporarily unavailable due to technical issues beyond our control.

The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) has released security updates to address several vulnerabilities in its Tomcat application server, one of which could allow a remote attacker to obtain sensitive information.

Apache Tomcat is an open source web server and servlet system, which uses several Java EE specifications like Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Expression Language, and WebSocket, and provides a “pure Java” HTTP web server environment for Java concept to run in.

Unlike Apache Struts2 vulnerabilities exploited to breach the systems of America credit reporting agency Equifax late last year, new Apache Tomcat vulnerabilities are less likely to be exploited in the wild.

Information Disclosure Vulnerability

The more critical flaw (CVE-2018-8037) of all in Apache Tomcat is an information disclosure vulnerability caused due to a bug in the tracking of connection closures which can lead to reuse of user sessions in a new connection.

The vulnerability, marked as important, was reported to the Apache Tomcat Security Team by Dmitry Treskunov on 16 June 2018 and made public on 22 July 2018.

The flaw affects Tomcat versions 9.0.0.M9 to 9.0.9 and 8.5.5 to 8.5.31, and it has been fixed in Tomcat 9.0.10 and 8.5.32.

Denial of Service (DoS) Vulnerability

Another important vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2018-1336, in Apache Tomcat resides in the UTF-8 decoder that can lead to a denial-of-service (DoS) condition.

“An improper handling of overflow in the UTF-8 decoder with supplementary characters can lead to an infinite loop in the decoder causing a Denial of Service,” the Apache Software Foundation says in its advisory.

 

Apache Tomcat Server Software Updates (Patches)

The vulnerability affects Tomcat versions 7.0.x, 8.0.x, 8.5.x and 9.0.x, and has been addressed in Tomcat versions 9.0.7, 8.5.32, 8.0.52 and 7.0.90.

The Apache Software Foundation also included a security patch in the latest Tomcat versions to address a low severity security constraints bypass bug (CVE-2018-8034), which occurs due to missing of the hostname verification when using TLS with the WebSocket client.

Administrators are strongly recommended to apply the software updates as soon as possible and are advised to allow only trusted users to have network access as well as monitor affected systems.

The Apache Software Foundation says it has not detected any incident of the exploitation of one of these Apache Tomcat vulnerabilities in the wild.

A remote attacker could exploit one of these vulnerabilities to obtain sensitive information.

 

The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The information is gathered from The Hacker News while we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.
Through this website, you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of CSIRT-CY. We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them.
Every effort is made to keep the website up and running smoothly. However, CSIRT-CY takes no responsibility for, and will not be liable for, the website being temporarily unavailable due to technical issues beyond our control.